What is Menstruation: Menstrual cycle, Symptoms, Treatment-
1. Estrogen action:
Estrogen Actions on:
Secondary sex characters:
- Plays a significant role in feminine sensitivity and shyness, feminine curves, soft skin, and luxuriant scalp hair.
- Prime importance to the development of breasts at puberty.
Secondary sex organs:
- Stimulation of the development of secondary sex organs
- Vulva and vagina are developed and maintained by estrogens,
- Estrogen increases vascularity and stimulates epithelial activity.
- Estrogen is responsible for glycogen deposition in the epithelium, thereby maintains vaginal acidity.
- Encourages the cornification of vaginal cells.
- It leads to hypertrophy of the myometrium and the endometrium.
- Changes in the uterus from the infantile to adult form and the withdrawal of their influence at the menopause lead to atrophy of all elements.
- Increases vascularity, enlargement, pigmentation of the areolar, and epithelial growth.
- Inhibits lactation.
- Estrogen depresses the output of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH).
- Increases the number of binding globulins in circulation ( Sex Hormone Binding Globulin – SHBG).
- Estrogen acts on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
- Conserve calcium and phosphorous.
- Stimulates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.
- The net result is that Estrogen encourages bone formation.
- At puberty estrogen first, give rise to a growth spurt.
- Lack of Estrogen leads to osteoporosis.
- Inhibits lactation.
- The estrogen receptor is found in the urethra and bladder.
- Promote urethral resistance and urethral continence.
- Maintains vaginal thickness, pH thereby protects against Urinary.
- Changes the vaginal epithelium and alters the activity of the cervix, influences the physical and chemical properties of its mucus (thickens).
- Assists estrogen in hypertrophy of myometrium.
- Progesterone increases the thickness of the endometrium.
- Promotes endometrial enzymatic activity, induces the glands, already generated by Estrogen
- Acts in conjunction with Estrogen in producing breast development at puberty and during pregnancy
- At low levels in the presence of Estrogen, progesterone exerts positive feedback for FSH and LH.
- Increased level of progesterone exerts negative feedback, thereby inhibits (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone) GnRH production as a result of inhibition of FSH production.
- A high level of progesterone can inhibit ovulation by this mechanism.
- Retention of sodium and fluid-like other steroid hormones.
- Promotes the secretion of sebum by the skin and makes scalp hair more greasy.
- Progesterone relaxes smooth muscle – in the uterus, blood vessels, and digestive tract.
- Progesterone is thermogenic and raises body temperature by 0.2-0.5°C.
What is progesterone?
Role of Progesterone in women:
Definition of Menstruation:
- Menstruation is a biological process that takes place in females.
- It means the discharge of blood monthly from the uterus from puberty to menopause.
- Women menstruate because they don’t conceive.
It is a periodic and cyclical shedding of progestational endometrium accompanied by loss of blood.Takes place at 28 -days intervals between the menarche ( 1st. menstruation) and menopause (last menstruation).
What is the menstrual cycle?
- Hypothalamic amenorrhea
- Diseases or injury of CNS
- Pituitary amenorrhea
- Ovarian amenorrhea
- Uterine amenorrhea
- Thyroid, Corticosteroid, Clomiphene, etc.
- Estrogen and Progesterone: Cyclical treatment with Estrogen and progesterone for up to three cycles to be given.
Secondary Amenorrhoea– is the cessation of the menstrual cycle for at least six consecutive months.
- During pregnancy and lactation
- Young girls also miss occasional periods during the first few years
- Drugs, irradiation
- Hysterectomy, trauma
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding:
- Abnormal uterine bleeding not associated with tumor, inflammation, or pregnancy.
- Most commonly at the extremes of reproductive life.
Signs and Symptoms:
- If the main symptom is, the discharge does not stop within seven days.
- Excessive bleeding (usually more than 60 ml).
- Headache, back, and wrist pain.
- Symptoms like constipation, anemia, nausea, weakness, etc.
- Causes of uterine tumors can occur in many cases.
- A disorder or leukemia can cause bleeding.
- antifibrinolytic agent Estrogen and progestogen
Progestogen– to convert the hyperplastic endometrium into a secretory phase and then come down normal shedding when treatment discontinued.
- Hormonal imbalances
- Before menopause
- When anxiety or frustration increases
- Suffering from chronic disease, anemia
- If you gain or lose excess weight.
- Oral contraceptive pills
Premenstrual Tension (PMS):
- The fluctuation of estrogen and progesterone.
- Affect of ovarian hormones on the vascular system.