Nephritis or inflammation of the kidneys:
Nephritis is deadly kidney disease. The incidence of this disease is very high in Bangladesh after the organs are gradually damaged due to this disease. The leading cause of kidney failure in Asia is nephritis, but in Europe, the leading cause is high blood pressure, and the second cause is fructified. The main cause of kidney failure in America is diabetes, and the third cause is fruits.
Fruits are a unique disease in the lining of the kidneys that causes millions of kidney filters to be damaged. As a result, the amount of pores in the remaining sieve increases first and then decreases.
With the help of which the essential protein (albumin) for the body comes out. With this comes out, the red and white blood cells. (Nephritis and nephrotic syndrome are characterized by the secretion of red and white blood cells in the urine, especially in the blood. The urine of a healthy person usually does not contain albumin or may contain small amounts (up to 60 mg in 24 hours). As a result, large numbers of albumin are excreted in the urine (3 to 5 grams or more in 24 cases).
If this process continues, the amount of albumin in the blood decreases. The ‘osmotic’ pressure also decreases, and water moves from the inside of the blood vessels to the outer tissues, resulting in various soft parts of the body such as the eyes. Water accumulates all around, in the abdomen, chest, under the skin of the legs, etc. In some cases, water may collect around the heart. Other complex processes work behind the accumulation of this water.
- Most (70-80%) are not yet known.
- In the case of tonsillitis caused by a bacterial infection called streptococcus hemolyticus.
- If the scabies is infected by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus aureus, these germs can affect the kidneys of some babies after 1-3 weeks. Such attacks are not uncommon in the elderly.
- The hepatitis virus also attacks the liver as well as the kidneys.
- May suffer from malaria.
- Side effects of medications (e.g., pain medications, antibiotics, phenytoin, etc.).
- Children between the ages of 5 and 15 are more affected by this disease; boys are more affected by this disease than girls.
Symptom & Sign:
Nephritis occurs in men and women of all ages. We can divide the symptoms of nephritis into five parts.
- In most cases, there is a gradual swelling of the face and body. Swelling of the face can be noticed, especially after children wake up, sudden weight gain. 60-70% of diseases people bring such symptoms.
- In many cases, the rage suddenly swells, which can be noticed on the eyelids. Urine decreases and turns purple. High blood pressure is seen, and the patient headaches, weakness, convulsions, fainting, urinary incontinence, and in many cases, shortness of breath.
- In 10% of cases, nephritis can occur without any symptoms. Only a urine test can detect the release of albumin or leukocytes from the body. Many of them have high blood pressure.
- About 5 to 10 percent of diseases people go to the doctor with symptoms of kidney failure. Symptoms include physical weakness, anemia, a tendency to urinate frequently at night, itching without any skin rashes, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and nausea.
- In some cases, the patient seeks medical attention for sudden kidney failure without any prior symptoms. Symptoms include swollen eyelids or swelling of the body, sudden loss of urine, nausea, headache, shortness of breath, in some cases, high blood pressure and rapid deterioration of the patient.
- Urine for albumin, RBC, WBC cast (a combination of cast protein and RBC)
- Blood for albumin, urea, creatinine
- Serum Electrolyte level
- ASO titer etc.
If caught early, 50 percent of nephritis can be cured with proper treatment. However, if the procedure is delayed, it becomes difficult to cure this disease. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the disease and send the patient to the hospital as soon as possible. The treatment of this disease should be done in a hospital, and 24 hours of urination and drinking water should be taken into account, it would not be right to take less risk of protein.
However, to prevent the rage, the following preventive measures need to be followed-
- Proponents of streptococcal sore throat and proper treatment
- Quick and accurate treatment of itching and malaria
- After taking Ayurvedic/herbal medicine for epilepsy, medicine for epilepsy, or rheumatism, take medication as soon as possible.
- Use injection syringes and needles more than once to prevent hepatitis-B and get vaccinated against hepatitis-B.
There is no specific treatment based mainly on symptoms. Penicillin antibiotics, diuretics, antidepressants, low water intake (as needed), avoidance of separate salts, etc. are the mainstays of treatment. If any complication occurs, the opinion of a specialist doctor should be taken. With proper treatment, 98 percent of children with nephritis recover. Within 2-3 weeks, all the symptoms go away, and the baby can do normal activities and study.
Nephrotic syndrome, like nephritis, is a prevalent kidney disease in children. When this disease occurs, the whole body of the child becomes swollen. It can occur at any age, but children aged 2-6 years are more affected by the disease. Boys, the rate of the disease is slightly higher.
In 90% of cases, no cause is known. Auto-Immune. It can also be caused by various infections (meningitis, syphilis, pneumonia), drugs (heavy metal). About 60-70% of children have nephritis called nephrotic syndrome. In nephrotic syndrome, a large amount of protein is excreted in the urine (24 hours Albumin in urine goes above 3gm).
Signs and Symptoms:
In the case of nephritis, the child’s body swells suddenly, just as in the case of nephrotic syndrome, the body does not swell suddenly, but swells slowly. Swelling around the eyes in the morning and the afternoon. Water slowly accumulates in the stomach and many cases. The abdomen swells before the legs. If anger is not diagnosed and treated in time, the whole body of the child can become very swollen.
Water accumulates around the testicles, and it can become quite swollen. Many times water comes out of the skin, and wounds are formed on the surface. Accumulation of water around the lungs and the heart can cause shortness of breath. Many of them have stomach aches. There may be a weakness, loss of appetite, occasional thin stools, etc. Blood pressure remains normal or decreases; in sporadic cases, blood pressure may rise.
This increases the risk of an infected child getting a bacterial or viral infection. Peritonitis, urinary tract infections, etc. can occur. Blood clots can form, and in sporadic cases, kidney function can be reduced. The patient is a combination of 3 symptoms-
- With urine, a lot of protein is excreted from the body.
- The amount of protein in the blood decreases.
- Durable water comes in the body. At the same time, blood lipids (blood fats) increase.
Heat coagulation test can be done in the chamber. One-third of the amount of urine in a transparent glass test tube is cut, and the machine is tilted. The upper layer of urine is boiled, heated, and cooled again to form a white coating. A white coat in the urine. May be due to having albumin or excess phosphate. The white layer should be reheated with a few drops of 5% acetic acid if there is this coating after cooling.
That’s for albumin. And if there is no coating or it is reduced, then it should be understood that there is no albumin in the urine, there is phosphate. Thus, the level of urine accumulation is usually indicated by the + sign.
If all the urine in the tube is frozen, then “Protein +++,” if half the tube is frozen, then “Protein ++,” if it is slightly frozen, “Protein +” is dissolved in this way. Throughout the day (24 hours), the level of protein in the urine is more than 2 gm, and the level of albumin (protein) in the blood is less than 2 gm/dl.
- Urine for R/M/E (especially albumin, RBC, WBC, cast)
- Serum albumin, cholesterol, urea, creatinine.
This treatment should be started at the hospital. Rest, urine measurement, moderate water, blood pressure measurement, swelling of the body, various types of infections, etc. Symptom-based treatment, as well as a nephrotic syndrome, is a type of steroid that is especially useful in the disease. This stops the release of albumin in the urine of 90% of children, and for the first time, prednisolone has to be applied in different doses for two to three months.
One of the hallmarks of this disease is that it can recur despite proper treatment—70-75 % of those who work in prednisone. The patient may start to release albumin in the urine again, and the baby’s body may swell if not understood in time. The hope is that despite repeated treatment, 95% of the cases will get better with age (Passed after ten years), which means parents need to understand that despite the treatment, the disease can occur several times.
Therefore, one should patiently follow the advice of a specialist doctor without rushing to different places in the hope of a complete cure. This disease is not hereditary, and there is no chance that the kidney will remain infected later. Kidney stones, Renal Stone Kidney stones are often talked about nowadays. The stone is a large size, or many can be cut short. These stones can occur anywhere from the kidneys to the urethra.