What is Tetanus?
It is caused by a type of bacterium called Clostridium tetanus. If the skin on any part of the body is torn or cut or if there is a wound or injury as a result of any kind of damage, if there are dust, dirt, or animal feces, etc., it can cause tetanus.
This is because the dirt, dust, and sand contain the germs of tetanus, which enter the wound and grow on the wound. Here bacteria breed and secrete another type of substance that Infects the nervous system. Tetanus or tetanus can occur in babies due to the use of bamboo mats, bread, knives, scissors, etc. without disinfection while cutting the veins of the newborn.
An infectious bacterial disease which is induced by the neurotoxin tetanospasmin, one of the most potent poisons (human lethal dose about 2.5 ng/kg). The toxin can act at the peripheral motor end plates, the spinal cord, the brain, and the sympathetic nervous system whose lethality rate: 20 – 60 %.
Mode of Tetanus Transmission:
Clostridium tetani, a gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for disease transmission & worked primarily by contaminated wounds, Tissue injury surgery, burns, deep puncture wounds, crush wounds, otitis media, dental infection, animal bites, abortion, and pregnancy.
It varies from 3-21 days, with an average of 8 days. The further the injury site is from the central nervous system, the longer the incubation period. The shorter the incubation period, the higher the risk of death.
Newborn baby, female during delivery or abortion & disease of active age (5-40 years).
The rabies virus can enter the body and stay dormant for 5 to 5 weeks. At the beginning of the rage, the muscles of the back and abdomen become stiff, and the nail gets stuck, and there is pain with it. The muscles near the wound may become rigid. The rage becomes restless, and the convulsions begin. Within 48 hours, the muscles start to contract faster, and the muscles become tighter.
As a result, the shoulders and neck become stiff. The jaw muscles become stiff. Angry can’t open his mouth. The body becomes curved according to the bow. As a result of the contraction of the breathing muscles, the angry person cannot breathe or speak. Can’t swallow food. Anger can die quickly due to shortness of breath or cardiac arrest.
- Tetanic seizures (painful, powerful bursts of muscle contraction)
- If the muscle spasms affect the larynx or chest wall, they may cause asphyxiation
- Stiffness of jaw (also called lockjaw)
- Stiffness of abdominal and back muscles
- Contraction of facial muscles
- Fast pulse
a) Active immunization against tetanus for:
- Infants aged two months and over
b) Tetanus prophylaxis in the case of injury
- The tetanus rage has to be treated in a dark, silent room so that the diseases do not start in the outer corner.
- Since Ragi cannot eat by mouth, he has to be given intravenous glucose saline.
- Since he cannot breathe, he may have to cut his trachea and arrange for artificial respiration. All the above arrangements have to be done under the supervision of a specialist in the hospital. So as soon as the rage is identified, the disease should be sent to the hospital.
Infant mortality due to tetanus is excessive. Once the tetanus is caught, it is difficult to save the angry one. But resisting this anger is very easy.
What to do to prevent tetanus:
Towards the end of a pregnancy before the birth of the child, i.e., in the 7th and 8th month, the mother should be vaccinated against two tetanus vaccines. This will protect the mother, the fetus, and the newborn from this rage. Sterilization equipment must be used to cut the baby’s navel after birth.
As soon as the baby is born, the DPT vaccine is given free of cost as per the rules. Advise the child’s guardian to get the vaccine from the nearest health and family welfare center.
Primary immunization schedule
Start dose: From the age of 2 months
2nd dose: 4-6 weeks from the 1st dose
3rd dose: 6-12 months after 2nd dose
Booster dose: Every subsequent ten years
Immunization in case of injury
- Up to 5 years previously: No need to immediate vaccination (When: primary immunization schedule completed)
- 5-10 years already: 1 dose (When: primary immunization schedule completed)
- Over ten years: 1 treatment & TIG (When: primary immunization schedule completed)
Note: History of complete ( 3 or more previous doses) primary immunization
Uncertain or Fewer than
Complete the primary immunization schedule &, in case of a severe wound, uses TIG at the time of giving 1st dose of Tetanus
Precautions and Warnings (Note: Some Vaccine)
Disadvantages of Thiomersal: Thiomersal has been added to vaccines as a preservative. It is primarily used because it is very instrumental in killing bacteria but the addition of this preservative in vaccines particularly
has been of great concern because of its mercury levels.
Mercury has been linked to the development of autism in the first few years of a child’s life. This is unfathomable, as even minimal amounts of the poison can interfere with DNA and cause the total organ to shut down in some cases.
About Rabies: Please Click Here